We prepare five-year-old children for schooling
Aspects of the problem of continuity in the educational work of kindergartens and schools and the adaptation of the child to the new conditions for life for her (L. Artemov, A. Zaporozhets, L. Wenger, I. Kucherov, T. Lisyansky, G. Lyaschenko, K. Mikhnovsky, D. Nikolenko, G. Lublin, N. Pidgorna, L. Podolyak, 0. Skrypchenko, M. Tretiak, I. Lukin, V. Konik, 0. Gribanova, V. Rurskaya, A. Kirilchuk, V. Kotricho, D. Shelukhin), modern studies (A. Bogush, L. Artemov, L. Kal-Mikova, S Kulachkivska, T. Ponimanska and others), give grounds to assume that the psychological and pedagogical possibilities of a large part of the Preschoolers are higher than those provided for by existing programs for preschool education institutions. According to the organized educational process, the children of the senior preschool age can acquire the content, master the mental operations and acquire such moral-volitional qualities that, being starting in school skills, allow them in the first class to master the program material of a higher level of difficulty.
The situation of modern domestic psychological and pedagogical research conducted by L. Artemov, A. Bogush, N. Bibik, M. Vashulenko, N. Kudikina, S. Ladivir, T. is supported by the decision of important issues of preparation of children of preschool age for educational and cognitive activity in the school. Lurina, A. Proskuria and others.
This problem has often been considered in terms of the continuity of pedagogical influence of preschool institutions and schools, provided that they begin their education for seven years and cover the period before the reform of education in Ukraine.
However, in the context of reforming the system of national education in connection with the transition to a twelve-year term of education and the beginning of school education of six years, the problem of preparing children of educational and cognitive activities at school is particularly acute.
The preparation of children of the sixth year of life before schooling depends on the coherence of the factors influencing it (the more appropriate it is determined, the forms, methods and means of realization of the pedagogical conditions of the management of the process of educational and cognitive activity of children in preparation for the school take place, the faster the children go to a higher level of readiness for educational and cognitive activity in the school, the higher the level of methodological support, the greater the competence of teachers in their professional activities.
As practice has shown, effective preparation of the child of the sixth year of life for educational and cognitive activity at the school takes place under the following conditions:
• accounting of the multicomponent structure of educational and cognitive activity;
• Individualization and differentiation of children’s preparation based on their cognitive interests;
• development and implementation of multilevel programs;
• ensuring the development of the interest of senior preschool children in educational and cognitive activities;
• reliance on gaming activities;
• Personality-oriented approach to children in the process of preparatory work;
• ensuring the readiness of teachers to create effective pedagogical conditions for preparing children for educational and cognitive activities.
The effectiveness of preparing children of the sixth year of life for educational and cognitive activity in the school largely depends on the creation of appropriate conditions for this by the teaching staff, parents. The role of teachers is determined by the degree of their readiness for the implementation of personally oriented education and training, the creation and use of multilevel programs, accounting of the multicomponent structure of educational and cognitive activity on the basis of an integrated approach to the implementation of advanced educational methods and technologies, the ability to constructively interact with parents of pupils, the presence the corresponding personality traits, the ability to notice the individual characteristics, needs and interests of children, taking into account their preparation sheep for educational and cognitive activity at school.
Pedagogical conditions contributing to the improvement of the effectiveness of the preparation of preschool children for educational and cognitive activity at school:
– Readiness of teachers to create the necessary pedagogical conditions for the preparation of children to study;
– Accounting of the multicomponent structure of educational and cognitive activity;
– Implementation of a person-oriented approach to children in the process of preparatory work, individualization and differentiation of educational process;
– Development of the interest of senior preschool children in educational and cognitive activities;
– Implementation of national education through native language, literature, folklore, traditions;
– proper linguistic development of children;
– Ensuring the developing influence of the game.
The basis of readiness of a teacher to create pedagogical conditions for the preparation of children of the sixth year of life in educational and cognitive activity at school is the perception of the child’s teacher as a subject of cognitive activity and communication. This is possible provided that in the system of values, semantic settings of the teacher the priority is the actual needs of the child and the development of his person in the period of preparation for educational and cognitive activity in the school. The need for such an individual approach to each child should be deeply understood by the teacher. The level of awareness ensures the appropriate nature of the interaction in the “pedagogue-child” system and the nature of the influence that an adult makes on the child, creating favorable or unfavorable conditions for her readiness for educational and cognitive activity in the school. In the system of communication, the child-educator-child must constantly identify with the child as an independent person. If in the educational process the teacher acts on the basis of his previous experience, without preliminarily modeling bilateral personal relationships, then he has a subjective-object approach to the child. This approach is mainly manifested in the authoritarian style of leadership in preparing children for educational and cognitive activities in school.
Important conditions for improving the efficiency of training the children of the sixth year of life for educational and cognitive activity at school is the mastery of teachers by means of diagnostics of the levels of development of children, their ability to learn, the motives of cognitive activity, the correction of the pedagogical process on the basis of feedback, the ability to select effective pedagogical methods and techniques Educational work with preschoolers.
Work with teachers who are ready to create favorable conditions for targeted training of children for educational and cognitive activities at the school should be aimed at:
– Their orientation to increase the interest of children in educational and cognitive activities;
– Understanding of the necessity of activating the independent search and creative activity of children;
– Implementation of person-oriented guidance of educational and gaming activities of children;
– Continuous analysis of the dynamics of self-preparedness for the implementation of a person-centered approach to children in the process of their educational and cognitive activity;
– Mastering specific psychological and pedagogical and methodological knowledge, methods and methods of working with children of senior preschool age;
– Mastering methods and methods of productive interaction with parents of pupils.
The task of education, in particular its preschool, is the socially organized support for the growth of each individual, its socio-cultural formation. Pre-school childhood is an important prerequisite for successful personality development in subsequent years. The “Basic component of preschool education in Ukraine” states that the pre-school institution is responsible for the process of social development of the individual, designed to facilitate its entry into the world and develop internal forces.
Being a kind of intermediary between a narrow family circle, from which the baby develops, and a promising social institution – a school, with its leading activity – studying, the preschool institution organizes the preparation of preschool children for educational and cognitive activity at school. This training is carried out through learning – the acquisition of knowledge by the child, the acquisition of skills and abilities, the ability to use them in life, the formation of a culture of knowledge, the creation of a fund “can”. In the preparation of children to enter specialized specialized schools of education performs a central function.
According to this model in modern schools, as well as in institutions that prepare children for training in these institutions, every child should be at the center of attention of the teacher as a person in his uniqueness. The training must reorient to the student. Recognizing a student as the main active figure in the entire educational process is personalized learning.
In the modern school model the following characterological components of the paradigm of personally oriented education are offered:
• the value component of the content of education (that is, the system of values of the individual, which is its vital reference points. (A large number of children recognize learning as a value in the secondary general education school);
• Cultural component, that is, the development of culture (the culturological component is intended to adapt the individual to social cultural life, and as little as possible limiting its activity);
• a component of socialization, accumulation of social experience;
• a personal component, associated with the development of personality abilities to self-knowledge, self-regulation, self-control, self-organization;
• Another component can be identified – natural, related to health, physical development.
The most significant features of personality-oriented learning are “the disclosure of the individual cognitive capabilities of each student and the definition of the pedagogical conditions necessary for their satisfaction. The development of students’ abilities is the main task of person-oriented pedagogy, and the” vector “of development is based not on learning from the student, but on the contrary, from the student to the definition of pedagogical influences aimed at its development. “