Kindergarten “Malyatko” is a wonderful institution of pre-school education in the city of Kiev
Training is a complex process, its effectiveness is ensured by preliminary prediction of pedagogical activity. Designing a person-oriented learning system involves:
– Recognition of the student as the main subject of the learning process;
– Definition of the purpose of designing – development of individual abilities of each student;
– Definition of means that ensure the realization of the goal set, by identifying and structuring the individual experience of the student, his purposeful development in the learning process.
In order to implement the model of preschool education, preparation of children for educational and cognitive activity in specialized specialized school is necessary:
a) create the conditions for the most complete disclosure of personal
qualities and abilities of each child, purposefully and systematically use scientifically substantiated methods of their development process;
b) adhere to the principle of position for personality-oriented learning, to compare the state of development with its previous condition, that is, to determine the dynamics of the child’s development compared with oneself, and not with others.
The main factors of personality-oriented preparation of preschool children for educational and cognitive activity in general education schools with specialized education are:
• development on the diagnostic basis of individual child development programs, prompt correction of this process, cooperation with parents, pedagogical organization of the environment;
• the basis in the educational process on the subject’s child’s experience (individual development associated with the socio-cultural environment, family traditions, material provision, etc.), his individual abilities and opportunities;
• active use in educational process of creative kinds of children’s activity;
• Dialogical form of the pedagogical process;
• use of such forms of training organization that are organically relevant to the age-specific characteristics of children;
• pedagogical attitude to pre-school preparation not as a process of accumulation of knowledge, but as a means of spiritual enrichment of the person, its formation as a citizen of his state;
• a differentiated approach to the content of educational work and its methodological support;
• unconditional pedagogical support in the educational process and in the development of the uniqueness of the individual of each child without exception.
Consequently, an important principle of modern preschool education is the orientation of the child’s personality.
Implementation of the specialist-oriented preparation of children for educational and cognitive activities in the school requires a radical change in the direction of the pedagogical process. It is necessary to abandon learning based on the subject-object relations between the child and the teacher, from the process normalized, strictly regulated and go to the learning of the individual cognitive activity of the child, with its correction and pedagogical support.
The task of individual-oriented training in educational and cognitive activities at school is to help each child, taking into account his individual subjective knowledge of learning, to improve his individual abilities, to develop as a person.
Favorable conditions for personality-oriented individualized learning are created by author’s educational programs, which are based on the accounting of all the diversity of individual needs of the child, creation on the basis of the prognostic model of its perspective development. This is precisely the condition for the profound improvement of the educational process, the prevention of surface and formal changes, which are now often encountered in the mass educational practice of preschool education.
Individualization of the preparation of children to study in general education institutions with specialized education is the attitude of educators towards the child as a personality.
Important components in preparing a child for educational and cognitive activity in a general education school with specialized education are:
– Physical readiness (full vision, well-developed auditory perception, fine motor hands, coordination of movements);
– Personal development (adequate self-esteem, objective assessment of actions and actions of other people, observance of rules of conduct,
– Readiness in the field of communication (the ability to build relationships with peers and adults, independently organize joint activities, fairly solve conflicts, favorably treat others);
– Emotional-volitional readiness (adequacy of emotional manifestations and feelings, ability to make volitional efforts, to restrain impulsivity, balance of processes of excitation and inhibition);
– Intellectual readiness (developed visual and figurative thinking, language, arbitrary attention, imagination, the presence of cognitive activity, certain knowledge and ideas about the environment, ability to read, count, etc.);
– Motivational readiness (the desire to attend school).
Cognitive activity in the educational educational complex, taking into account the age-old peculiarities of its pupils, should be based on playing activity as a leading one.
O.Ya. Savchenko says
says that the interest of the child in cognitive activity is her joy of life: “If the hope of the baby is reached for the joy of school life, then the curiosity is strengthened, there is interest, which is a strong motive for learning.”
An essential feature of the motivation of cognitive activity of children in the preparatory period to study is its dependence on age-related changes in needs. In the preschool age, the leading motives are gaming. At school age, they retreat to the background, giving way to training motives.
Consequently, the methodological provision of the preparation of children of the sixth year of life for educational and cognitive activity in the school should be two-tiered. On the one hand, it should rely on the game, on the other – on regulated learning. The game, as well-known child activity, creates an optimistic perception of her learning. The emotional color of the optimistic worldview is manifested in the joy of the child.
It is very important to ensure unity, continuity, consistency of education and upbringing of children during classes and games. For kids, learning is a game, and vice versa – the game is learning. This is an indivisible process. Involvement of children in the game contributes to the formation of skills and competences, knowledge acquisition, mental development in general. The organization of the educational process in the form of the game includes the mechanism of development of cognitive autonomy, creativity and allows to achieve not only the closer (knowledge, skills, skills), but also the distant (spiritual and intellectual development of the individual) goals of learning.
When organizing the gaming activities of children, you must adhere to the following rules:
– Task-steps should provide conditions for the advance of development of abilities;
– The development of a child is successful when she independently reaches the optimal level of her capabilities;
– Games must be varied in their content;
– Games must be conducted in an atmosphere of co-creation and community;
– When playing with children, adults (teachers, educators, parents) should not do what children can do for themselves;
– The content of each game is determined by the content of the training material provided for the training session;
– Each game contains a task of varying complexity, which students decide with the help of different developing and didactic material;
– In order to acquaint the child with various means of information transmission, the task is offered in the form of oral instructions, drawings, models;
– The task of the game is in the order of increasing complexity;
– The tasks of the game provide children with the possibility of their re-formation, as well as the individual pace of their performance;
– The objectives of the game allow for their implementation at the next training session, at home;
– The task of the game provides the possibility of practical verification of the results obtained;
– Games give children the opportunity to make new tasks;
– Provide an opportunity for each child to rise to the optimal level of their development.
An important component of the formation of teachers’ readiness to create favorable conditions for the preparation of children for educational and cognitive activity at school is the achievement of positive changes in the methodology of leadership of the activity of preschool children. The management of games of various types should be carried out in the areas of providing content, motivation, procedural-operational and control-evaluation components of educational and cognitive activity.
Content component. Proceeding from the fact that the game is purposefully used in the preparation of children for educational activities in the school, as a method of pedagogical influence on preschoolers, its content should be based on the cognitive material of the program of preparation of children to school. Due to the integration of the content of pedagogically organized cognitive activity of preschoolers and various games, the active, creative use of children in the new conditions of the knowledge created by teachers during their preparation for schooling is provided.
The motivational component is provided by the formation of cognitive interest in the content of the game, the activation of the child’s internal forces to realize the purpose of the game activity, in accordance with its specificity. The motivation of creative games is explained by the fact that in these games, imitating adults, the child is formed as a creative person. The creative imitation of behavior, personality manifestations, attitude to the activity and the content of work of adults is the essence of the motivation of creative children’s games during their preparation for schooling.
The motivational component in the games for ready-made rules, among which in the formation of the child’s mental readiness for educational and cognitive activities at school are especially important didactic games, created by the teacher’s interest in the mental effort of the child in the game, the creation of a positive image of preschoolers, the organization of a situation for success for less developed children , support of their achievements, activation of the desire to be confirmed in the achievements of their cognitive activity.
The process-operational component in the experimental technique of game management consists of two mutually agreed blocks: one of them – a block of action games, the second – the ways of mental activity that provide cognitive activity in the context of the game. The mental actions are determined by the specifics of the cognitive material on which the game is based. Reasonable actions should be ensured by the purposeful and consistent formation of rational ways of cognitive activity in children, depending on its subject orientation (mathematics, Ukrainian language, English language, etc.).
The control-estimating component is implemented in the form of operational and final self-control of the child, the interrogation of the group of children who play together, and the control and evaluation actions of the teacher. The control and evaluation actions of the game character contribute to the formation in the preschool children of the important for further educational and cognitive activity in the school skills to evaluate their own mental activity and accordingly adjust it in the direction of achieving the goal.
The management of the game by the teacher is a dynamic and multifactorial process. The use of the game in the preparation of children of the sixth year of life for educational and cognitive activities in the school is carried out not only with the specificity of the game as a cognitive activity, but also, that it is important, and taking into account the personal qualities of the child.
The rational management of the game for the teacher is not an easy task. Only by special training of teachers and mentors for the management of the game, as multicomponent activity, we can succeed in ensuring this important pedagogical condition for the successful preparation of children of the sixth year of life to educational and cognitive activities at the school.
In determining the criteria for the readiness of children to carry out educational and cognitive activities at the school for six years, we took into account the progress in all components of the activity – motivational, informative, procedural-operational, control and appraisal.
Based on the criteria, indicators and levels of training for children of the sixth year of life prior to educational and cognitive activity at the school are determined.
Indices of readiness of children for schooling are contained in the structure of cognitive activity. Under the indicator of readiness for conducting educational and cognitive activities at a school of six years, we understand the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of certain components of activity in unity with its qualitative certainty.
Indicators characterizing the motivational component: the identification of positive emotional responses to the cognitive situation – the proposal of the educator to prepare for the classroom, which is interested in the perception of a new cognitive material, the embodiment of the desire to fulfill the cognitive task, the desire for success in cognitive activity, etc .; the presence of cognitive interest – the level of child curiosity, cognitive attitude to the outside world, the activity of preschoolers in the detection of curiosity.
Indicators characterizing the procedural component: the ability to understand and accept teaching tasks, to keep them in memory; initiative orientation in the new educational conditions, the desire to master the general ways of cognitive activity; the ability to promptly begin the search operations, explain the way of their execution, the ability to observe objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality, purposefully explore them; arbitrariness of behavior, ability to keep work during the classroom, etc.
Indicators characterizing the control and evaluation component: the adequacy of the child’s response to the assessment of cognitive activity in the course of organized classes, the ability to focus on the outcome of the activity, to be aware of causal relationships, self-control ability, self-confidence.
According to the indicators of children’s preparedness for educational-cognitive activity, the possession of children in the Ukrainian language, the presence of interest and a positive attitude towards future educational and cognitive activity, development of cognitive mental processes is determined.
Conditionally allocated three levels of preparation for the indicated activity (high, average, low) provided certain qualitative characteristics.
High-level children, who have a significant interest and a positive attitude towards educational-cognitive activity, are quickly guided by the task set, revealing a rather broad knowledge of each of the groups of objects that need to be classified. The essential signs of objects from different groups are called, they have sufficient ability for their age to define different household concepts, operate these concepts in everyday life.
By the middle level, the children who show indirect interest and the attitude to educational-cognitive activity, can confidently identify a significant general feature in each group of homogeneous items that are classified. These children can perform the classification operation in a visually effective way. A generalization in a verbal plan, which is important for the formation of concepts, is done only on the example of the teacher. Generalizing concepts are not sufficiently confident.
To the low level are children who are indifferent to educational and cognitive activity, when performing the classification, distinguish random signs, do not make a distinction between the main and secondary characteristics, differentiated classification of individual objects according to their common essential features to the corresponding groups do not.
Being a link of ontogenetic personality development, preparation for educational and cognitive activity in school should be based on the level of child’s previous development and take into account the requirements of the next degree of education.
Only the complete changes of all components of cognitive activity in their unity provide the necessary level of readiness of children for educational and cognitive activity – at school from six years. In turn, full-fledged preparation of preschoolers to school is possible only if the system of educational work covers all components of cognitive activity.
In the process of creation of favorable conditions for the preparation of children of the sixth year of life to educational and cognitive activity at school, we have focused teachers on ensuring increased interest of children in educational and cognitive activity, activation of independent search and creative work, personally oriented communication with children and appropriate management of game activity, self-development, mastery of specific psychological and pedagogical and methodological knowledge and techniques of individualized learning, creation of multilevel educational programs am
One of the conceptual provisions of preparing children for educational and cognitive activity in a comprehensive school with specialized education is the direction of the educational process for the development and self-development of the child’s personality. The content of individualized training for secondary school with profile education is laid out in multi-level educational programs that are based on the entire diversity of the individual needs of the child.